Thomas Ernest Hulme

 

 

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Literatur: The New Age

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Texte zur Theorie und Rezeption des Symbolismus (Hulme)
Texte zur Theorie und Rezeption des Symbolismus (Visan)

 

L'Attitude du Lyrisme Contemporain. By Tancrède de Visan. (Mercure de France.)

This is an extremely good and an extremely interesting book. I recommend those who either know nothing of modern French poetry or who, knowing something, want their knowledge systematised, to buy it at once. (True inwardness of movement.)

I confess that its goodness was a surprise to me. When I first picked it up I saw that it was a collection of essays on all the poets that one has known about for some time. The names on the cover – Verhaeren, De Regnier, Mockel, Paul Fort, Maeterlinck, and Viele-Griffin seem just the same as those in Beaunier's book, "La Poesie Nouvelle," that I read some five. or six years ago. There were no new names. I found this to be an illustration of one of my favourite theories – that French verse, after a short period of great interest, the most vital that had occurred for centuries, had now arrived at comparative stagnation, and had been succeeded by a period during which French philosophy, also for the first time for centuries, was to dominate Europe.

However, when I commenced to read the book I found it vastly different to what I had expected. It is not a mere collection of disconnected, though intelligent, essays on the fashionable moderns that we all of us know, the kind of thing which any literary man who is in the know can turn out at his leisure, but is really a definitely-thought-out attempt to exhibit all these poets as particular manifestations of the same general current of ideas.

It starts out from this thesis. That there is in each generation what Taine called a "temperature morale," which is to be found at the same epoch in all the different orders of mental activity, and which constitutes "l'état général de l'esprit de moeurs environnantes." To any tendency of poetry at a given time there is a corresponding tendency of philosophy. The psychology of one of Corneille's heroes corresponds to the pure Cartesian doctrine. To the Positivism of Comte and Littre corresponds in literature the spread of naturalism and the "Parnasse." The criticism of Taine, the poetry of Leconte de Lisle, the novels of Flaubert, the painting of Courbet, all live in one common atmosphere. The question then arises, what similar parallelism holds good of modern French literature and philosophy – Monsieur De Visan's book is a reasoned attempt to prove that the spirit which finds expression in the Symboliste movement in poetry is the same as that represented by Bergson in philosophy.

They are both reactions against the definite and the clear, not for any preference for the vague as such, not for any mere preference for sentiment, but because both feel, one by a kind of instinctive, unconscious process and the other as the result of reasoning, that the clear conceptions of the intellect are a definite distortion of reality. Bergson represents a reaction against the atomic and rational psychology of Taine and Spencer, against the idea that states of mind can be arrived at by the summation of more elementary states. He asserts the mental states from a continuous and unanaly[401]sable state of flux which cannot from its nature be ever represented clearly by the intellect, but must be seized by a process of intuition. The Symbolist reaction against the Parnasse is exactly the same reaction in a different region of thought. For what was the Parnassian attitude? It was an endeavour always to keep to accurate description. It was an endeavour to create poetry of "clear" ideas. They employed always clear and precise descriptions of external things and strove by combinations of such "atoms of the beautiful" to manufacture a living beauty. To the Symbolists this seems an impossible feat. For life is a continuous and unanalysable curve which cannot be seized clearly, but can only be felt as a kind of intuition. It can only be got at by a kind of central vision as opposed to analytic description, this central vision expressing itself by means of symbols. M. Visan would then define Symbolism as an attempt by means of successive and accumulated images to express and exteriorise such a central lyric intuition. This is the central idea of the book, and the working of it out in the detailed study of the poets of the movement is extremely well done. It is very interesting to see how a complex thought like that of Bergson should be unconsciously anticipated and find a tentative expression in a purely literary movement.

One amusing expression should be noted. He gives an interesting description of the eager little sets of students who used to attend Bergson's lectures at the Collège de France, and contrasts it with the present day, when it is impossible to find a seat and the hall is overpowered by the feathers and "blasphemous scents" of women.

 

 

 

 

Erstdruck und Druckvorlage

The New Age.
A Weekly Review of Politics, Literature, and Art.
Bd. 9, 1911, Nr. 17, 24. August, S. 400-401.

Die Textwiedergabe erfolgt nach dem ersten Druck (Editionsrichtlinien).


The New Age   online
URL: https://modjourn.org/journal/new-age/
URL: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000547317

 

 

Zeitschriften-Repertorium

 

Kommentierte Ausgaben

 

 

 

Werkverzeichnis


Verzeichnis

Hulme, T. E.: The Collected Writings.
Hrsg. von Karen Scengeri.
Oxford: Clarendon Press 1994.
S. 479-483: A Bibliography of Hulme's Works.


Hulme, T. E.: Lecture on Modern Poetry [1908].
In: Michael Roberts: T. E. Hulme.
London: Faber and Faber 1938, S. 258-270. [PDF]

Hulme, T. E.: Belated Romanticism. To the Editor of "The New Age".
In: The New Age. A Weekly Review of Politics, Literature, and Art.
Bd. 4, 1909, Nr. 17, 18. Februar, S. 350.
URL: https://modjourn.org/journal/new-age/

Hulme, T. E.: Bax on Bergson.
In: The New Age. A Weekly Review of Politics, Literature, and Art.
Bd. 9, 1911, Nr. 14, 3. August, S. 328-331.
URL: https://modjourn.org/journal/new-age/

Hulme, T. E.: [Rezension zu:]
L'Attitude du Lyrisme Contemporain
.
By Tancrède de Visan. (Mercure de France.)
In: The New Age. A Weekly Review of Politics, Literature, and Art.
Bd. 9, 1911, Nr. 17, 24. August, S. 400-401.
URL: https://modjourn.org/journal/new-age/

Hulme, T. E. (Übers.): An Introduction to Metaphysics. By Henri Bergson.
London: Macmillan 1913.
URL: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001916611
URL: https://archive.org/details/dli.bengal.10689.7403

Hulme, T. E.: German Chronicle.
In: Poetry and Drama.
Jg. 2, 1914, Nr. 6, Juni, S. 221-228.
URL: https://archive.org/details/poetrydrama02monruoft
URL: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011596380

Hulme, T. E.: Bergson's Theory of Art (Notes for a Lecture.) [1911/12].
In: The New Age. A Weekly Review of Politics, Literature, and Art.
Bd. 30, 1922:
Nr. 22, 30. März, S. 287-288
Nr. 23, 6. April, S. 301-302
Nr. 24, 13. April, S. 310-312.
URL: https://modjourn.org/journal/new-age/

Hulme, T. E.: Romanticism and Classicism [1911/12].
In: Speculations. Essays on Humanism and the Philosophy of Art.
Edited by Herbert Read. With a Frontispiece and Foreword by Jacob Epstein.
London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner; New York: Harcourt, Brace 1924, S. 113-140.



Hulme, T. E.: Speculations. Essays on Humanism and the Philosophy of Art.
Edited by Herbert Read. With a Frontispiece and Foreword by Jacob Epstein.
London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner; New York: Harcourt, Brace 1924.
URL: https://archive.org/details/SpeculationsEssaysOnHumanismAndThePhilosophyOfArt   [Reprint 1960]

Hulme, T. E.: Further Speculations.
Hrsg. von Sam Hynes.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press 1955.

Hulme, T. E.: The Collected Writings.
Hrsg. von Karen Scengeri.
Oxford: Clarendon Press 1994.

Hulme, T. E.: Selected Writings.
Hrsg. von Patrick McGuinness.
Manchester: Carcanet 2003.

 

 

 

Literatur: Hume

Antliff, Mark: Inventing Bergson. Cultural Politics and the Parisian Avant-Garde. Princeton, NJ 1993.

Ardoin, Paul u.a. (Hrsg.): Understanding Bergson, Understanding Modernism. New York 2013.

Atkinson, Paul: Henri Bergson and Visual Culture. A Philosophy for a New Aesthetic. London 2021.

Comentale, Edward P. u.a. (Hrsg.): T. E. Hulme and the Question of Modernism. Aldershot u.a. 2006.

Brandmeyer, Rudolf: Poetiken der Lyrik: Von der Normpoetik zur Autorenpoetik. In: Handbuch Lyrik. Theorie, Analyse, Geschichte. Hrsg. von Dieter Lamping. 2. Aufl. Stuttgart 2016, S. 2-15.

Décaudin, Michel: La crise des valeurs symbolistes. Vingt ans de poésie française 1895 – 1914. Genf u.a. 1981 (= Références, 11).

Gibson, Matthew: Contradictory Images: The Conflicting Influences of Henry Bergson and William James on T. E. Hulme, and the Consequences for Imagism. In: Review of English Studies 62 (2011), S. 275-295.

Gorceix, Paul: Une Interprétation bergsonienne du symbolisme: Tancrède de Visan - L'Apport de la Belgique. In: Licorne 12 (1986), S. 85-100.

Hadjiyiannis, Christos: Conservative Modernists. Literature and Tory Politics in Britain, 1900–1920. Cambridge 2018.

Hass, Robert B.: (Re)Reading Bergson: Frost, Pound and the Legacy of Modern Poetry. In: Journal of Modern Literature; 29.1 (2005), S. 55-75.

Mead, Henry: T. E. Hulme and the Ideological Politics of Early Modernism. London 2015.

Midgley, David: 'Schöpferische Entwicklung'. Zur Bergson-Rezeption in der deutschsprachigen Welt um 1910. In: Scientia Poetica 16.1 (2012), S. 12-66.

Pondrom, Cyrena N.: The Road from Paris. French Influence on English Poetry, 1900 – 1920. Cambridge 2010.

Rae, Patricia M: T. E. Hulme's French Sources. A Reconsideration. In: Comparative Literature 41.1 (1989), S. 69-99.
URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1770680

Tearle, Oliver: T. E. Hulme and Modernism. London u.a. 2013.

 

 

 

Literatur: The New Age

Ardis, Ann L.: Democracy and Modernism: The New Age under A. R. Orage (1907-22). In: The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines. Hrsg. von Peter Brooker u.a. Bd. 1: Britain and Ireland 1880-1955. Oxford 2009, S. 205-225.

Bains, Christopher: Le Paris d'Ezra Pound: utopie et exil dans les pages de The New Age et The Dial. In: Revues modernistes anglo-américaines. Lieux d'échanges, lieux d’exil. Hrsg. von Benoît Tadié. Paris 2006, S. 79-93.

Brinkman, Bartholomew: Women's Poetry in the Modern British Magazines: A Case for Medium Reading. In: Women, Periodicals, and Print Culture in Britain, 1890s-1920s. Hrsg. Von Faith Binckes u. Carey Snyder. The Modernist Period. Edinburgh 2019, S. 313-328.

Garver, Lee: Neither Progressive nor Reactionary: Reassessing the Cultural Politics of The New Age. In: The Journal of Modern Periodical Studies 2.1 (2011), S. 86-115.
URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/jmodeperistud.2.1.0086

Jackson, Paul: Great War Modernisms and The New Age Magazine. London u.a. 2012.

Martin, Wallace: The New Age under Orage. Chapters in English Cultural History. Manchester 1967.

Mead, Henry: A New Age Philosophy: A. R. Orage and T. E. Hulme In:: Revues modernistes, revues engagées: (1900-1939). Hrsg. von Hélène Aji u.a. Rennes 2011, S. 133-150.
URL: http://books.openedition.org/pur/38408

Mead, Henry: T. E. Hulme and the Ideological Politics of Early Modernism. London 2015.

Milburn, Diana: The Deutschlandbild of A.R. Orage and the New Age Circle. Frankfurt a.M. 1996.

Scholes, Robert / Wulfman, Clifford: Modernism in the Magazines. An Introduction. New Haven u. London 2010.
Kap. 6: How to Study a Modern Magazine.

Taylor, Gary: Orage and The New Age. Sheffield 2000.

Trexler, Adam: Crafting a New Age: A. R. Orage and the Politics of Craft. In: The Journal of Modern Craft 4.2 (2011), S. 161-182.

 

 

Edition
Lyriktheorie » R. Brandmeyer